| Madison County, named for the
nations fourth President, was founded in 1827. The county seat is Madison, though it
was originally known both as "Newton" and "Hicksville," the latter for
a Seminole chief with the anglicized name John Hicks.
The original county seat was located at San Pedro, a now-vanished wayside on the historic Bellamy Road connecting St. Augustine and Pensacola. The structure was built of logs, but the site was later abandoned as it was in a low, wet area and suffered frequent malaria outbreaks. In response to the unhealthy conditions of the original county seat, Madison was founded on a hill surrounded by a ring of lakes. Originally this was known both as Newton and Hicksville, the latter for a Seminole chief with the anglicized name John Hicks. The first courthouse was constructed by Adoniram Vann in 1840. Early settlers also attended court in Monticello, Jefferson County. The first Madison courthouse burned in 1876 and was replaced by one built in 1880 of brick. This building burned as well, in 1912, and was replaced in 1913 by the present courthouse which remains in its original configuration with no attaching annex.
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